Dating arbuda arab so
So much so that Indian culture regarded the science of numbers as the noblest of its arts...
A thousand years ahead of Europeans, Indian savants knew that the zero and infinity were mutually inverse notions."The real inventors of [the numeral system], which is no less important than such feats as the mastery of fire, the development of agriculture, or the invention of the wheel, writing or the steam engine, were the true birthplace of our numerals, Ifrah salutes the Indian researchers saying that the "..inventors of this fundamental discovery, which is no less important than such feats as the mastery of fire, the development of agriculture, or the invention of the wheel, writing or the steam engine, were the mathematicians and astronomers of the Indian civilization: scholars who, unlike the Greeks, were concerned with practical applications and who were motivated by a kind of passion for both numbers and numerical calculations.""It was only after the eighth century BC, and doubtless due to the influence of the Indian Buddhist missionaries, that Chinese mathematicians introduced the use of zero in the form of a little circle or dot (signs that originated in India),...".
like much new mathematics were not welcomed by all.
In 1299 there was a law in the commercial center of Florence forbidding their use; to this day this law is respected when we write the amount on a check in longhand ., undergoing a number of changes on the way.
A favourite subject of theirs was Indian mathematics..." etc.
where he gave a full account of the Hindu numerals which was the first to expound the system with its digits 0,1,2,3,....,9 and decimal place value which was a fairly recent arrival from India.
It took them about 300 years to fully comprehend its working. Jesuit records show that they sought out these texts as inputs to the Gregorian calendar reform.
This is why it was so well suited to the most exuberant numerical or arithmetical-cosmogonic speculations of Indian culture.""The Indian people were the only civilization to take the decisive step towards the perfection of numerical notation.
We also know that several different ways of writing numbers evolved in India before it became possible for existing decimal numerals to be marred with the place-value principle of the Babylonians to give birth to the system which eventually became the one which we use today.
Because of lack of authentic records, very little is known of the development of ancient Hindu mathematics.
The earliest history is preserved in the 5000-year-old ruins of a city at Mohenjo Daro, located Northeast of present-day Karachi in Pakistan.
Evidence of wide streets, brick dwellings an apartment houses with tiled bathrooms, covered city drains, and community swimming pools indicates a civilisation as advanced as that found anywhere else in the ancient Orient.
Knowledge of the Hindu system spread through the Arab world, reaching the Arabs of the West in Spain before the end of the tenth century.